Non-road energy consumption and pollutant emissions
Study for the period from 1980 to 2050
This report quantifies non-road pollutant emissions and fuel consumption in Switzerland. This source encompasses all mobile machines and appliances that are equipped with a combustion engine and are not intended to transport passengers and goods by road. The calculations were made for eight different machine and appliance categories, and cover the period from 1980 to 2050, with 2010 as the reference year.
The non-road segment encompasses all mobile machines and appliances that are equipped with a combustion engine and are not intended to transport passengers and goods by road.
Non-road pollutant emissions in 2010
Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons
- Highest emission levels come from agricultural machinery: 37% (because of the use of single-axle mowers and the high load factors.
- Appliances used for garden care: 28% of the CO and 24% of the HC emissions
- Emissions through forestry machinery: 5% CO and 8% HC
- Emissions made by forestry and garden appliances are mainly because a very large number of them are petroldriven
- The greates sources of emissions are construction machinery: 33% of non-road emissions
- 32% of nitrogen NOx emissions are from agricultural machinery
- Industrial machinery and ships: 14% respectively 12% of the NOx emissions
- Agriculture is by far the largest source of particulate matter emissions today, with a proportion of 58% of the total emissions in the non-road sector.
- It is possible, for example, to greatly reduce emissions of diesel soot with the aid of particle filter systems.
- It is becoming apparent that compliance with the European is possible with the aid not only of particle filters, but also with the application of alternative technologies such as selective catalytic reduction.
- In Switzerland, the majority of construction machines used on building sites have had to be equipped with particle filters since the entry into force of the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control in 2009. As far as other types of machinery are concerned for which a retrofitting requirement does not apply, a reduction will only be possible at a considerably later date.
Source: Notter, B. and Schmied, M. (2015): Non-road energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Study for the period from 1980 to 2050. Federal Office for the Environment, Bern. Environmental studies no. 1519: 237 pp.